The topic of the paper should cover some aspect of the broad field of Biology. I

The topic of the paper should cover some aspect of the broad field of Biology. It must be at least 1000 words in length (NOT including references)
Each section of the paper should have a title, similar to below:
Summary (approximately 100 words)
Even though the summary is positioned at the beginning of the paper, it should be the last part of the paper you complete! All components of the paper (NOT including references) should be evident within these 100 words.
Introduction/background (approximately 300 words)
This part of the paper should contain a short history of the topic you have chosen. This may include the origins of the name, early observations of the phenomenon, and/or important people who contributed most significantly to what is known. You could also briefly discuss what interested you about your chosen topic.
State of the science (approximately 300 words)
In this section I expect a description of the important biological aspects of the topic. “How does it work?” Describe the mechanism of the disease and/or the key aspects of the biology/physiology/ecology being discussed.
Future directions (approximately 300 words)
Finally, discuss the limitations of what is known about the topic and/or what scientists are trying to find out or develop. Examples would include aspects of biology or physiology that are not understood and things being done to deal with a problem/disease.
Referencing (not part of the 1000 words!)
Your paper must have references! Citations in the body of the paper should adequately represent statements made in the paper (NO LESS THAN 6 REFERENCES. USE THE STYLE DESCRIBED BELOW). They should be numbered and shown in the Reference Section at the end of the paper in the order that it appeared.
Body of paper
The appearance of PSA in serum represents some disruption of the prostate gland’s architecture (1). PSA continues to be produced by prostate cancer cells at all stages of the disease (2, 3).
1. Williams, S. A., Singh, P., Isaacs, J. T., and Denmeade, S. R. (2007) Does PSA play a role as a promoting agent during the initiation and/or progression of prostate cancer? The Prostate 67, 312‐329
2. Lilja, H. (1985) A kallikrein‐like serine protease in prostatic fluid cleaves the predominant seminal vesicle protein. The Journal of clinical investigation 76, 1899‐1903
3. Lilja, H., Christensson, A., Dahlen, U., Matikainen, M. T., Nilsson, O., Pettersson, K., and Lovgren, T. (1991) Prostate‐specific antigen in serum occurs predominantly in complex with alpha 1‐antichymotrypsin. Clinical chemistry 37, 1618‐1625

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