Category Archives: Anthropology

Essentially summarizing the book and adding a paragraph or so on at the end disc

Essentially summarizing the book and adding a paragraph or so on at the end discussing who might find the book useful and interesting. You may also sprinkle some light commentary/critique throughout the summary.
The main points may include:
Why is this important to society? How can it help build a better society? How does it help us understand people and/or society?
Main Criteria:
Does it accurately summarize the main points of the book, critically analyze the book material and, thoughtfully reflect on how the material from the book might be applied to or play a role in your life or society overall, addressing specifics?
I’ve included an example of a book review that reflects how this one should be.

Choose one of the four ethnographies listed on page 2, either B1, B2, B3, or B4.

Choose one of the four ethnographies listed on page
2, either B1, B2, B3, or B4. All are available as KPU Library eBooks. Read the
assigned chapter(s) of the ethnography that you have chosen, paying close attention
to parts of the chapter(s) where the author presents his or her research
Write a 3-page essay describing and discussing the research methods used
by the anthropologist whose ethnography you have chosen.
There are various aspects of research methods you
can discuss. The most important are: the specific methods the anthropologist
chose; how she or he used them; and what insights about the research topic the
methods generated. Include some background information about the study, such
as: the times and places where the research was done; how the anthropologist
developed relationships with members of the communities they worked with; and
why the research topic is important. You could also discuss: forms of
reciprocity practiced; the roles of research collaborators; ethical
considerations; and any ethical dilemmas the researcher may have faced.
Your essay should have an introduction, a body, and a conclusion.
You are not required to do additional research for this assignment.

Assignment Purpose Use library databases to locate peer-reviewed, scholarly sour

Assignment Purpose
Use library databases to locate peer-reviewed, scholarly sources
Evaluate different types of sources for credibility and relevance
Use APA style guides as a resource
Prepare APA style citations
With this assignment, you and others in your topic group will collaboratively develop a bibliography, a collection of sources relevant to your topic. This will be an annotated bibliography, which means you will also include some notes about each source. You can draw on this collaborative bibliography to write your Literature Review Outline and then your Individual Research Paper.
Note – This assignments requires skills and knowledge from the Week 2 module:
(W2) Source Credibility
(W2) Finding Outside Sources
(W2) APA Citation
Part One: Find, Cite, and Summarize Sources (due Fri of Week 3)
This first step is done individually — no need to reach out to or try to collaborate with others in your group at this point.
Find 3 scholarly, peer-reviewed sources related to your topic. You are looking for sources that will help you learn about the issues related to this topic, and eventually explain to your readers the discussions, debates, or research taking place about those issues.
Note 4/15: I deleted a comment here about focusing on U.S. culture in your research articles; that was left from a previous quarter when the assignment was more focused on interviewees in the U.S. only.
Most sources will be academic journal articles, but you could also use a chapter in an peer-reviewed academic book (don’t cite an entire book unless you are actually reading the whole thing!)
Reference the Project Group Topics page for ideas of issues and keywords to focus on in your search.
Consult (W2) Source Credibility and (W2) Finding Outside Sources to review what scholarly, peer-reviewed sources are and how to find them
For more help with databases searches and keywords, enroll (free) in the EvCC Library Classroom > Modules > EvCC Searching for Information
Prepare an APA style complete reference for each source, as if for a References page.
Consult (W2) APA Citation to review what APA style is, what information you need to cite a scholarly, peer-reviewed article, and how to format those citations
Read/watch your sources and write a few sentences that summarize the main point or focus of each source and/or explain how the source could be relevant to your topic.
The purpose of these notes is to help you keep track of what each source is about plus help others in your group determine whether they want to read and incorporate that source into their paper.
Be sure that these sentences are written in your own words, not copied from the article/abstract.
Submit your bibliography (list of sources + summaries) and PDFs of the individual articles/chapters to this assignment
There should be a button or link to “Download PDF” within the database for any available article
Name your files with the author’s last name and year of publication so it is clear which file goes with each reference. For example, Sampson2022.pdf or PrangEtAl.pdf
Part Two: Make Corrections + Share Sources (due Fri of Week 4)
This is where the collaboration comes in — after you make corrections as needed, you will post your sources to a Google doc shared with others in your group.
Check for feedback on your bibliography submission. (Review the How to View Instructor Feedback assignment for instructions on finding that feedback.)
I will have reviewed your contributions and by the end of the day Monday (Week 4)
I will use the rubric and comments to let you know if your sources are reliable and appropriate, and if your citations are basically completely correct. In that case, you don’t need to make corrections and can move on to sharing your sources with your group (#3 below).
However, many submissions will require corrections. I will give feedback about the changes needed for the assignment to be marked as complete.
Make any necessary corrections to the sources or summaries and re-submit the assignment here.
Share your references/notes and PDFs with your group.
After you have corrected your citations and summaries and resubmitted here (as needed), you should also add those references and summaries to a Google doc that is shared with other members of your project group. You and others in the group can then draw on this shared, collaborative, annotated bibliography for your literature review outlines/research papers. Add your sources and summaries to the Google Document for your group:
Medical Anthropology Shared Annotated Bibliography (Links to an external site.)
Linguistic Anthropology Shared Annotated Bibliography (Links to an external site.)
Additionally, upload your PDFs of the individual articles/chapters to the folder for your group. Make sure they are titled as described abaove (Part One/#4) to make the folder easy to navigate:
Medical Anthropology Articles folder (Links to an external site.)
Linguistic Anthropology Articles folder (Links to an external site.)

Papers are approximately 8 long, not including the title page and references. Al

Papers are approximately 8 long, not
including the title page and references. All term papers must be properly cited
and contain a bibliography or reference section. A typical undergraduate paper must
have at minimum 5 references including 2 books and 3 scholarly articles. You
should not use dictionary or encyclopedia references. You may use web articles,
but only in addition to 2 books and 3 scholarly articles. Journal articles must
be peer reviewed.

For this essay assignment, you are asked to apply course materials that we have

For this essay assignment, you are asked to apply course
materials that we have covered to response to two (2)of the following essay options. The respond to each option must be 350 words minimum and 600 words
maximum. The word count applies to the each essay option and not the smaller
questions within the option. It is important to draw on concrete
examples from recorded lectures, readings, and films. For each essay option,
you must draw on at least 3 terminologies from the textbook or lecture to apply
to your response.
points per essay option, 50 points total
Concretely responds to prompt questions
– 5 points per question, 10 pointstotal
350 words minimum per question –5 points
per question, 10 points total
3 terminologies per question – 5 points
per question, 10 points total
Concrete examples from course materials
– 5 points per question, 10 points total
Grammar/spelling/style – 5 points per
question, 10 points total
1. 1. Rituals are an important part of our school
experiences, be they graduation ceremonies or pregame pep rallies. They are
also an important and enduring part of our social lives that work to hold
communities together. What are some of the rituals that are performed at your
school (high school, college, or university), social club, family functions, or
workplace? Please give some attention to the details of the ritual. Why do
people practice these rituals? What are their purported meanings? How would you
classify these rituals (i.e. periodic ritual)? During which time of the year
are they practiced? Do they have social meanings or religious meanings, please
2. 2. Discuss a rite of passage that you have attended (please do not provide a
second-hand account of someone else’s experience).Some rights of passage
rituals are: circumcision ceremonies, baptism, quinceaneras, and military
induction, etc… Identify and describe the three phases according to the lesson
from chapter 4 “Ritual”. Give careful detail to the import of each phase of the
ritual. Be sure to incorporate key terms such “symbols” and “icons”. Please
identify concrete meanings from the ritual festivities. NOTE: You cannot write
on the same topic for essay option 1 and 2, you must pick different topics to
write about for each of the option.
3. 3. How is adulthood defined in U.S. culture
(socially, biologically, culturally)? Or you can use the example of the culture
that you are most familiar with. At what point is one considered or defined as
an adult? And why? Is one an adult because of biological reasons, social
reasons, religious reasons, etc…? Is there a rite or several rites of passage
that mark this transition?Are the rites of passages defined by gender? What are
the meanings and responsibilities that are projected on to an individual that
has transitioned into adulthood? Be specific in describing this. Be sure to use
terminologies that we have learned.
4. Choose a religious symbol that you are familiar
with and describe its meaning. How is this symbol connected to the myths and
worldview of the culture in which it is found?How is this symbol used? Where is
it stored? Draw examples from the course. You must articulate the meaning of the religious symbol within the
broader context that it is used. For example, Catholic symbols such as the
Virgin Mary are unique to that sect of Christianity which is not prominent in
others. Incorporate key terms that we have learned. You can focus on a rosary,
a bible, a buddha statue, etc..

Symbolic and Interpretive Anthropologies

Using the knowledge and terminology you’ve gained from the course so far I want

Using the knowledge and terminology you’ve gained from the course so far I want you to thoroughly investigate this topic and give me a real reason answer. Please include at least two references from your book. Your paper should be at least 375 words long but no more than 500 words. Please double space and include your name at the top of the paper and the word count at the bottom. Follow the appropriate format for your major or use MLA if you do not yet have a major .
Book : Clark Spencer Larsen . Essentials of Biological Anthropology. 5th edition (ISBN: 978-0-393-87685-7)

Overview Two of the most important questions in archaeology are “when”? and “whe

Two of the most important questions in archaeology are “when”? and “where”? Accurate dating is essential to document changes in human behavior over time. It is necessary to be able to place things and events in a framework of time and geographic space to know what happened, when, and where; in other words, the order in which things happened. Only after when and where something happened, and by creating a chronology or a sequence of events, can archaeologists understand the past. As the archaeologist Mortimer Wheeler (1890-1976) said, “Chronology is the backbone of archaeology: not the entire skeleton, but nothing less than the backbone.”
Archaeological dating methods fall into two general categories, relative or absolute.
Relative dating methods provide an indication of the age of an item in relation to other materials. These methods rely on stratigraphic position or association – context – to determine that an object is of approximately the same age or younger or older than something else. An example of a relative association is: the Oldowan industry is older than the Levallois stone tool industry. Bow and arrow hunting technologies are a younger (or more recent development) than spear hunting technologies.
Relative dates: dates expressed relative to one another instead of in absolute terms. For instance, earlier, later or more recent.
Absolute dating methods are used to assign a specific, calendar age to an object or event in years B.P. (before the present), B.C. (before Christ), A.D. (anno Domini), B.C.E. (before Common Era), or C.E. (Common Era) calendar years, or another conventional system. For example, the Fourth Egyptian Dynasty lasted from 2680 to 2565 B.C. The Roman Colosseum was constructed between A.D. 70 and 82. The Battle of Gettysburg took place on July 1-3 in A.D. 1863. “Absolute” does not mean that the date is perfect. Instead, “absolute” means that the date is given in years according to our calendar.
Absolute date: a date expressed as specific units of scientific measurement, such as days, years, centuries, or millennia. Absolute determinations attempt to pinpoint a discrete, known interval in time.
A calendar is a system for classifying and organizing time into repeatable and predictable units. Calendars operate in both the past and the future for recording history and scheduling activities. A day is the smallest unit of calendrical time; the measurement of fractions of a day is referred to as timeskeeping and involves hours and minutes. The earliest evidence for an awareness of time comes from 15,000 years ago during the Upper Paleolithic, when seasons of the year (and perhaps the phases of the moon) were recorded in art and systems of notation. By 3000 B.C. the Sumerians in Mesopotamia were using a lunar calendar that divided the year into 30-day months and split each day into 12 equal periods. Today, there are approximately forty different calendars in use around the world. The most common among these is the Gregorian calendar. The Gregorian calendar was installed by Pope Gregory in A.D. 1582. The calendar was originally created for religious purposes to calculate the dates for the moveable feasts of Christian ritual. The Gregorian calendar is a solar calendar and is based on a cycle of 400 years of 146,097 days; each year has an average of 365.2425 days. The 12 months of the year have a fixed order and an unequal number of days. Years are counted both forward (A.D.) and backward (B.C.) from the birth of Christ. There are two types of years. A common year is 365 days; a leap year of 366 days occurs once every four years (with a few exceptions).
Calculating Time
The calendrical references (B.C./A.D., B.P., etc.) used in archaeology vary based on the period, region, and culture one is investigating. As we continue to survey the archaeological record in this class you will see variations in the way time is referenced. This activity will help you learn how to identify the archaeological time references and to accurately switch between timescales in a meaningful way.
All measuring devices and scales – including calendars – use a datum point. A datum is the starting point from which things are measured. A calculator, ruler, car odometer, etc. all use a datum of 0.
Example of a ruler and its 0 datum:
Calendrical and chronological time scales, which measure time, also use a datum. For example: the datum for the B.C./A.D. timescale is 0, while the datum for the B.P. timescale is 1950 A.D. Read on to learn why these datums differ.
Example of the B.C./A.D. timeline and its 0 datum:
Timescales & Date Abbreviations
There are four major timescales used to provide absolute/calendrical dates in archaeology, all of which link to the Gregorian calendar.
B.C./A.D. (before Christ/anno Domini): This scale uses the references in the Gregorian calendar. B.C. refers to the time “before Christ”. A.D. refers to “anno Domini” (Latin for “year of the Lord”) which denotes time after the birth of Christ. This timescale was not used until the spread of Christianity through Europe. It became the predominant timescale only after European colonization across many regions. Datum is 0 and symbolically represents “the year Christ was born”. Everything before datum is B.C., everything after datum is A.D.
B.C.E./C.E. (before Common Era/Common Era): This timescale is the same as above, however, it replaces the B.C./A.D. references with the abbreviations of more generalized, non-religious-based, terminology. B.C.E. refers to the time “before the Common Era”. C.E. denotes time “during the Common Era”. Essentially, B.C.E. aligns with B.C., and C.E. aligns with A.D. Datum is 0 and marks the year in between the end of B.C.E. and the transition to C.E. Everything before datum is B.C.E., everything after datum is C.E.
B.P. (before the present): This scale was developed in coordination with radiocarbon dating, an absolute dating method. Radiocarbon dating relies on the ratio of different isotopes of carbon within the atmosphere and the regular decay of the isotope carbon-14 (14C). Atomic-bomb testing in the mid-twentieth century drastically altered the ratio of different carbon isotopes within the atmosphere, so the datum in the B.P. timescale is equivalent to the year A.D. 1950 (in the Gregorian calendar). In other words, A.D. 1950 is considered “present” in the “before the present” reference. B.P. – before the present – literally means before A.D. 1950. Thus, 1800 B.P. means 1800 years before the present, or 1800 years before A.D. 1950. The B.P. timescale counts backwards, so the year 1 B.P. is equivalent to A.D. 1949, 50 B.P. is equivalent to A.D. 1900, 100 B.P. is equivalent to A.D. 1850, and so on. There is no “after the present reference” in this timescale as anything more recent than A.D. 1950 is considered to be of historical rather than archaeological nature.
ya (years ago), ka (kilo annum, thousand years ago), or mya (million years ago): These references are used to assign a general, more approximate rather than specific, date to events that occurred a very long time ago. For example, the entry of humans into the New World during the Pleistocene (Ice Age) is thought to have occurred by about 15,000 ya (years ago), or 15 ka, which is equivalent to about 14,929 B.P. and approximately 13,000 B.C.
Because calendrical references vary in archaeology, researchers – and students – must learn to accurately switch between timescales in a meaningful way. In order to compare a B.P. reference to a B.C./A.D. reference, for example, one must first place the two references into the same timescale. This takes a bit of simple math.
First note that the B.C./A.D. and B.C.E./C.E. timescales are offset from the B.P. timescale by 1,950 years. In other words, the difference between the B.C./A.D., B.C.E./C.E. datum (0) and the B.P. datum (A.D. 1950) is 1,950 years. Therefore, to convert the dates to the same timescale one would either need to add or subtract the difference.
How to convert B.C./A.D. and B.C.E./C.E. dates to B.P. dates:
B.C. to B.P. calculation:
B.C. date + 1950
For example: 1000 B.C. + 1950 = 2950 B.P. (i.e. 2,950 years before the present or 2,950 years before A.D. 1950)
A.D. to B.P. calculation:
1950 – A.D. date
For example: 1950 – 1000 A.D. = 950 B.P. (i.e. 950 years before the present or 950 years before A.D. 1950)
B.C.E. to B.P.:
Same as the B.C. to B.P. calculation
C.E. to B.P.:
Same as the A.D. to B.P. calculation
How to convert B.P. dates to B.C./A.D. and B.C.E./C.E. dates:
When converting a B.P. date to the other timescales, always subtract the B.P. date from its own datum (A.D. 1950). A positive result is equivalent to an A.D. or C.E. date, and a negative result is equivalent to a B.C. or B.C.E. date.
For example: 1000 B.P.
1950 – 1000 B.P. = 950
The positive result indicates the converted date falls within the A.D. and C.E. range so the answer is 950 A.D. or 950 C.E.
For example: 3000 B.P.
1950 – 3000 B.P. = -1,050
The negative result indicates the converted date falls within the B.C. and B.C.E. range so the answer is 1050 B.C. or 1050 B.C.E.
Investigate the following events in human history and consider their chronology in relation to each other. Calculate the dates of the events in multiple calendrical timescales and put the events in order, from oldest to most recent.
Task 1
Create a table with six columns and seventeen lines. Title the first line of each column in the following way:
Example of the table you will create for this activity.
Event B.C. or A.D. Date B.C.E. or C.E. Date B.P. Date
Show your work
Sequence Order
Task 2
Using your textbook and other reliable resources, conduct a bit of research on the dates of the following events.
Humans reach Australia
Wheat first domesticated
Humans reach North America
Dogs first domesticated
Great Pyramids of Giza built
Stonehenge built
Sumerian cuneiform invented
Columbus arrives in the New World
United States Declaration of Independence signed
Start of the Common Era
Quin era Great Wall of China
Ming era Great Wall of China
Battle of Little Big Horn
BP timescale datum
Humans reach Europe
Homo sapiens sapiens (AMHs) emerge in Africa
Task 3
Place the events into your table – one event per line. Enter the date you found from researching the event into the corresponding column. For example: if you learned construction began on the Roman Colosseum in A.D. 70, you would enter the date into the B.C. or A.D. Date column.
Example of the activity table.
Event B.C. or A.D. Date B.C.E. or C.E. Date B.P. Date
Show your work
Sequence Order
Construction of the Roman Colosseum begins
A.D. 70
Task 4
Convert the remaining dates for each event and place the results in the corresponding columns. Note that you must also show your work for any calculations that are made. Provide the exact calculations. Do not round off your results. For example: if you learned construction began on the Roman Colosseum in A.D. 70, you would enter the date into the B.C. or A.D. column, and then convert and enter the dates and calculations into the B.C.E. or C.E. column and the B.P. column.
Example of the activity table.
Event B.C. or A.D. Date B.C.E. or C.E. Date B.P. Date
Show your work
Sequence Order
Construction of the Roman Coliseum begins
A.D. 70 C.E. 70 1880 B.P. 1950 AD – 70 AD = 1880 BP
Task 5
After the dates have been calculated and entered, compare all of your events and place them in sequential order, starting with #1 and ending with #16. Enter the number for each event into the Sequence Order column of your table.
Example of the activity table.
Event B.C. or A.D. Date B.C.E. or C.E. Date B.P. Date
Show your work
Sequence Order
Construction of the Roman Coliseum begins
A.D. 70 C.E. 70 1880 B.P. 1950 AD – 70 AD = 1880 BP 6
Task 6
Create a simple* timeline that represents the passage of time and place the events in sequential order, starting with the earliest (oldest) event and progressing to the latest (most recent) event. Note that the timeline may only use one timescale – either B.C./A.D. or B.C.E./C.E. or B.P.
The timeline must include the following elements:
A marked datum point that corresponds with your chosen timescale.
Labelled B.C. and A.D. sections or B.C.E. and C.E. sections, if you chose to use one of these timescales.
The name of each event.
The date of each event. All of the event dates must be uniform across your timeline. In other words, if you chose to create a B.P. timeline, then all of the dates must be converted and labelled using the B.P. reference.
*Note: This timeline will include a lot less information than the annotated versions you constructed for the Paleolithic Periods. That is perfectly fine! It’s a simple timeline – you are not being asked to include more information, such as annotations and photos.
The activity may be typed or hand-written. If you choose to turn in a hand-written document, it may be submitted as a high-resolution JPEG image, or scanned and submitted as a PDF. Typed versions must be submitted in one of these CANVAS friendly formats – Microsoft Word, WordPerfect, Adobe PDF, JPEG, Rich Text Format (RTF), or Google Docs (submitted via the Google Drive tab).

Instructions The Maya Long Count Calendar began in the year 3114 BC and ended on

The Maya Long Count Calendar began in the year 3114 BC and ended on December 21, 2012 AD (in our calendar system). Did that day in 2012 mark the terminal end of the Maya concept of time? Did the Maya prophesize an apocalypse, or end of days, in the year AD 2012? We are still here, so did the Maya get it wrong?
Conduct a bit of internet research to learn more about the end of the Maya calendar in AD 2012, and the associated apocalypse belief.
Write a 3-page composition that includes the following content.
Briefly describe the 2012 apocalypse belief. What did the belief encompass? What evidence was used to support it? How was it linked to the ancient Maya and their calendar?
Explain the Maya long count calendar in detail. How is time divided? Did the calendar end in 2012? What calendrical rotation was linked to 2012? Note: this should be the primary emphasis of your paper.
Did the ancient Maya prophesize the world would end in AD 2012? Did the apocalypse belief have any relation to Maya mythology at all? Explain – why or why not?
Format : the composition must be written in complete sentences and paragraph format. It must be typed in 11-pt Calibri font, with 1-inch margins, and double-spacing. A minimum of 3 full pages is required.
Always Cite Your Sources
Be sure to support what you say with references to the course material and/or outside sources, when relevant. Make sure to cite these sources both (1) within the text, and (2) in a References area at the bottom of your post/response, using APA style. Cite your sources every time you use words, images, or ideas that are not your own. This includes:
Direct quotes
When you copy & paste someone’s exact words inside quotation marks.
Paraphrased/summarized content
When you put someone else’s ideas into your own words.
When you use photos, charts, maps, diagrams, illustrations, graphs, videos, etc. that you did not create on your own.
Place your References/Works Cited page at the end of your essay and submit the documents together.

Description Research one field or real world problem that biological anthropolog

Research one field or real world problem that biological anthropologists are involved in and that you find most interesting (for example forensics, human rights work, undocumented migrant deaths, genetics, conservation or the study of primates, the bushmeat crisis and anthropologists’ role in problem solving, public health work, emergency/natural or unnatural disaster responders, etc.).
PowerPoint Presentation (NOT GOOGLE SLIDES)
Create a PowerPoint (15-20 slides). Each slide must have an in-depth audio explanation or a written explanation in the notes section. Do NOT use google slides, there are too many issues with submitting these and getting access, etc. You can download PowerPoint and other Microsoft Office software for FREE as a PCC student. Here is the LINK
Questions to Address in Your Work:
The following questions must be answered (and do not necessarily have to be answered in this order):
Describe the specific field or problem that you are focusing on.
Provide background information about the problem for context.
What kind of anthropological work does this role entail?
Is the work year-round, on-call, project-based, etc.?
What real world problems/questions does it solve/answer? (provide a specific example).
Why did you pick this topic?
You are required to find at least one scholarly (peer-reviewed) journal article, find at least one additional legitimate outside source, and utilize your textbook and any reading materials provided in class. The peer- reviewed publication has to be within the past five years (2017-2021). A minimum of two sources are required.
Do not use Wikipedia as a reference.
Use the PCC’s libraryLinks to an external site. to search for academic sources (articles, books, videos) as reference. You can also use other educational websites.
Make sure to properly cite your references.
Edit, edit, edit!!! This is your final assignment, make an effort and make sure your work is free of errors in spelling, punctuation, and grammar.
If you choose to do your project on the bushmeat crisis, you can address the following in your work:
What is the country you are investigating?
Explain the current factors associated with the bushmeat crisis. Other animals are most likely impacted by the killing for food, but offer specifics concerning primate species and the commercialization of meat in this territory.
Is the meat from primates considered a delicacy? Why has the amount of hunting increased in recent history?
Summarize the political, economic, and social factors leading to the bushmeat crisis.
Describe, in detail, the scientific analysis of the crisis and any means to reduce the killing of endangered animals for commercialized meat.
What is the role of the anthropologist in this problem?

This assignment will require you to compare and contrast two anthropological the

This assignment will require you to compare and contrast two anthropological theories, examining in some detail, their strengths and weaknesses. You should select two theoretical models (interpretive anthropology and neo evolutionism theories) and compare and contrast them in a paper that should be 9 pages in length, excluding the reference page/s. For each theory, you should select at least three readings that exemplifies the theory. Your outside sources cannot be class notes posted online. Equally, unsubstantiated websites, or other non-professional materials are not permitted to be used as references.
Your essay should be detailed and substantiated by quotations and citations from the readings and each much be properly attributed.