1. ) Identify the elements of the problem, issue, or question -Supporting action

1. ) Identify the elements of the problem, issue, or question
-Supporting actions:
Break the problem down into pieces, elements, or components.
Recognize how the pieces or components are related to each other.
Look for missing information or gaps in what you know.
Note the information that you do not have, cannot find, or is unavailable.
Separate symptoms from underlying causes.
Avoid judgments and premature solutions.
Gather information.
Supporting questions:
What problem am I trying to solve?
What are the key issues in this problem?
What facts do I have? A fact is “something that actually exists; reality; truth; a truth known by actual experience or observation; something known to be true.”*
What evidence do I have? Evidence is “that which tends to prove or disprove something; grounds for belief; proof.”*
Which pieces of information are opinions? Opinion is “a belief or judgment that rests on grounds insufficient to produce complete certainty; a personal view, attitude, or appraisal.”*
Which pieces of information are inferences? To infer is “to derive by reasoning; conclude or judge from premises or evidence.”*
Are the inferences well or poorly reasoned? Can alternative inferences be drawn from the same facts or observations?
Which pieces of the information are theories? A theory is “a more or less verified or established explanation accounting for known facts or phenomena.”*
What do I not know?
What information is missing, and is it possible to get the information I do not have?
What are the possible sources of information?
What must remain unknown for now?
2.)- Analyze, define and frame the pr
Analyze, define, and frame the problem, issue, or question
Supporting actions:
Gather information that you need to know more about the context surrounding this problem.
Decide which pieces of information are important.
Identify your point of view.
Consider how your cultural values shape your perception of the problem.
Evaluate conflicting evidence.
Separate symptoms from underlying causes.
Avoid value judgments and premature solutions.
Analyze arguments.
Identify what you do not understand and the complexities of the problem.
Define a research problem.
Supporting questions:
What are my goals? What am I trying to accomplish?
Which pieces of information are the most important in relationship to this problem?
Is the information, or presented evidence, relevant to the problem? Are there other ways to interpret the information?
How does the information relate to:
What I already know?
My personal and professional experiences?
How does this information support or match my experiences?
How does it contradict or differ from my experiences?
What information opposes my position?
What theories in my discipline shed light on this problem?
What are the values, beliefs, and assumptions (i.e. or the things that are taken for granted and usually unstated) implied in the problem statement?
What are my values and beliefs in relationship to this problem?
Am I ignoring evidence that does not fit with my beliefs?
Am I failing to consider or investigate evidence that may contradict the theory I support?
What are my assumptions in relationship to this problem?
What support or evidence do I have to back up these assumptions?
What are the values, beliefs, and assumptions of my sources of information and references in relationship to this problem?
How does my culture or my world view shape my approach to this problem?
How would someone from another culture or world view approach this problem?
What are the possible causes of this problem?
What blind spots are keeping me from seeing additional causes?
What evidence supports my assertions? How reliable is this evidence?
What evidence supports others’ assertions?
How reliable is this evidence?
What other issues relate to this problem?
Am I considering the complexities of this problem?
How important is the problem relative to other problems?
Consider solutions, responses, or answers
Supporting actions:
Consider the evidence for and against:
Your theory or viewpoint.
Others’ theories or viewpoints.
Analyze arguments.
Imagine the implications of each possible solution.
Formulate research questions or hypotheses.
Supporting questions:
What theories relate to these solutions?
What are the possible expert views that may be held on this problem?
Which views are best supported by evidence?
What are all the possible solutions, resources, and constraints to this problem?
Additional solutions
What blind spots are keeping me from seeing them?
What are the implications of these?
What might be the consequences of these?
What world view does each imply?

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